Ms Bicchieri emphasises how exceptional people often get the process started.
Bicchieri 2006, 2016; Guala 2016; O’Connor 2017).
(See Skyrms 1990, pp. 125–139 and Bicchieri 1989.)
However, Bicchieri (2016) points out that inefficiency is not a sufficient condition for a norm’s demise.
Ms Bicchieri cites campaigns against FGM that have described uncut girls as pure, intact and as God made them.
For criticisms of the classical view, see Binmore (1987), Reny (1992), Bicchieri (1989) and especially Bicchieri (1993).
By contrast, social norms are better studied as group-specific solutions to strategic problems (Sugden 1986; Bicchieri 1993; Young 1998b).
., Bicchieri 2016, Sripada 2006, and the entry on social norms) with accounts of the human kinds that our socio-conceptual behaviors structure and shape.
., 1998; Danielson (1998); Bicchieri (1999); Kitcher (1999); Gintis (2000); Harms (2000); Krebs (2000); Alexander and Skyrms (1999); and Alexander (2000, 2007).
Much of the most philosophically relevant work involves the importance of social norms and conventions in determining the result (Bicchieri 2016, Vanderschraaf forthcoming).
Bacharach (1992), Bicchieri (1993) and Fagin, et al. (1995) adopt this approach, and develop logical theories of common knowledge which include soundness and completeness theorems.
The final step in creating a durable social norm, says Ms Bicchieri, is when normative expectations become empirical ones—that is, when everyone can see that the new rules are sticking.
Answers offered in the literature range from interpreting the deviation as an error without any future implications (Aumann 1995) to treating it as significant in various ways (Bicchieri 1993).
Cristina Bicchieri, a philosopher at the University of Pennsylvania and the author of “Norms in the Wild”, a book about social rules, has a warning: “Don’t expect the birth of a new norm to be easy.”
In the literature on norms and conventions, both social constructs are seen as the endogenous product of individuals’ interactions (Lewis 1969; Ullmann-Margalit 1977; Vandershraaf 1995; Bicchieri 2006).
Likewise, experiments in behavioral economics and cognitive psychology are being employed in asking moral questions about public policy (Bicchieri and Chavez 2010; Bicchieri and Xiao 2009).
In a subsequent study, Chavez and Bicchieri (2013) measured empirical and normative expectations (as well as behavior) of third parties who were given the opportunity to add to or deduct from the payoffs of subjects who had participated in an ultimatum game.
Logic plays a role in cognitive psychology and experimental game theory, if only to identify testable hypotheses related to Theory of Mind or strategic reasoning (Ghosh, Meijering, & Verbrugge 2014; Ghosh & Verbrugge 2018; Bicchieri 1993; Fagin, Halpern et al. 1995).
Section 6 of this entry has been adapted with minor changes from “Game-Theoretic Accounts of Social Norms”, by Cristina Bicchieri and Alessandro Sontuoso, in The Handbook of Experimental Game Theory, Mónica Capra, Rachel Croson, Tanya Rosenblatt, and Mary Rigdon (eds.), Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, forthcoming.
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Section 6 of this entry has been adapted with minor changes from Game-Theoretic Accounts of Social Norms by Cristina Bicchieri and Alessandro Sontuoso in The Handbook of Experimental Game Theory Mónica Capra Rachel Croson Tanya Rosenblatt and Mary Rigdon eds Cheltenham Edward Elgar Publishing forthcoming