Darwinian algorithms are…
A Darwinian population is conceived as, at minimum,
More than one former employee described the atmosphere in Darwinian terms.
Presumably this trend has something to do with selection algorithms, that electronic version of Darwinian theory.
This entry gives a broad historical review of the topic up to the “Darwinian Revolution”.
He is the author of a trilogy on the science-religion relationship: Can a Darwinian be a Christian?
For example, honey bee colonies appear to be Darwinian individuals even though they are not literally living agents.
As physiological individuals, hearts are alive but they do not reproduce or relate to reproducers in the manner that Darwinian individuals do.
All three types of project have broadly to do with how neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory might bear on our understanding of ethics or morality.
The overwhelming consensus in modern biology is that the challenges to Darwinian evolutionary theory brought forward by Behe, Dembski and others can be met.
Ratzel, whose early studies were in biology and anthropology, was much influenced by Darwinian thinking when linking human societies to their physical environments.
., the Hawaiian bobtail squid and its luminescent bacteria, are not “Darwinian populations” (Godfrey-Smith 2009, 2011), and therefore not units of selection (see Booth 2014).
In such a Darwinian population, the members are Darwinian individuals, which are both bearers and active reproducers of heritable traits (see Godfrey-Smith 2013: 19–20).
Unlike many of the other topics that define the history of Darwinism, there is no clear-cut position on this question that can be identified as ‘Darwinian’ or ‘neo-Darwinian’.
The Danish novelist, poet, and essayist Johannes Vilhelm Jensen provoked much debate in his later years through his attempt to depict human development in the light of an idealized Darwinian theory.
On a different approach, evolutionary transitions are seen as the appearance of a “new kind of Darwinian population”, of “new entities that can enter into Darwinian processes in their own right” (Godfrey-Smith 2009: 122).
Both groups and multicellular organisms exemplify collective reproduction, and Godfrey-Smith’s discussion of the continuous dimensional space that characterizes collective reproducers, and Darwinian individuals more generally, has been influential, and is summarily depicted in Figure 4 below.
Matters get only worse when one adds that (i) Darwinian evolution—“the claim that natural selection, working on random mutation, is the driving force behind much, if not most, evolutionary change” (351)—helps to explain natural nonbelief in early humans and (ii) Darwinian evolution is much more likely on naturalism than theism.
As for (ii), “Darwinism starts out more likely on naturalism than on theism” because “Darwinism is highly optional on theism”, as evidenced by the fact that “an omnipotent God would have many non-Darwinian ways to create minds, bodies, and souls and would not be limited to Darwinian or even physical constraints”, whereas on naturalism, “the options for developing life are much more constrained, especially in the relevant time frame” (360–61).
In short, the later Gould argues that Darwinian evolution traditionally emphasizes organismic selection, adaptationism, and extrapolationism; that punctuated equilibria, stabilizing selection, and species selection challenge the first of these supports, developmental and other constraints challenge the second, and major evolutionary transitions challenge the third; but that all three of these challenges can be accommodated by a revised but still Darwinian conception of evolutionary theory.
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In short the later Gould argues that Darwinian evolution traditionally emphasizes organismic selection adaptationism and extrapolationism that punctuated equilibria stabilizing selection and species selection challenge the first of these supports developmental and other constraints challenge the second and major evolutionary transitions challenge the third but that all three of these challenges can be accommodated by a revised but still Darwinian conception of evolutionary theory