Lange’s position is one of socialist Darwinism (as opposed to social Darwinism).
Social Darwinism was the notion that human groups and races are also subject to natural selection.
They discuss this rampant and ambitious piece of writing that deals with big ideas like radical theory, genocide and Darwinism, yet is hilarious too.
Positivists rejected the liberal belief in the equal value of all citizens and imbibed the “scientific racism” and social Darwinism in vogue in late 19th-century Europe.
Since the initial interest in evolutionary theory, sociologists have considered four deterministic theories to replace social Darwinism.
In time, however, new discoveries in the biological and social sciences disproved the belief that social Darwinism had a scientific basis.
One simple way to think about Darwinism in relation to a logical space of alternatives, then, is by means of the following variation grid:
…he published his first book, The Selfish Gene, in which he tried to rectify what he maintained was a widespread misunderstanding of Darwinism.
Otherwise, we risk uncritically reading the fact that Spencer happened to influence popularizers of social Darwinism into our interpretation of him.
The criticisms of China’s policies towards Africa and ethnic minorities, and the use of the labels “social Darwinism” and “neocolonialism”, are unfounded, biased and lack respect for historical facts.
Ayala, in full Francisco José Ayala, (born March 12, 1934, Madrid, Spain), Spanish-born American evolutionary geneticist and molecular biologist best known for expounding the philosophical perspective that Darwinism and religious faith are compatible.
One of the strongest arguments for insisting that ‘Darwinism’ as it is used today is isomorphic to Darwin’s Darwinism, as Gayon puts it, is that each of these questions is still hotly debated, and has been throughout the theory’s history.
It would neither be Darwinism, as usually understood, nor a smoothly continuous extension of Darwinism, for it violates directly the fundamental reductionist tradition embodied in Darwin’s focus on organisms as units of selection. (1982: 386)
Herbert Spencer is famous for his doctrine of social Darwinism, which asserted that the principles of evolution, including natural selection, apply to human societies, social classes, and individuals as well as to biological species developing over geologic time.
In its popular period of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, social Darwinism, along with the doctrines of Adam Smith and Thomas Malthus, touted unrestricted competition and laissez-faire so that the “fittest” would survive and civilization would continue to advance.
Geneticists have offered an effective critique of the “Formal Darwinism Project” to units of selection and adaptation, arguing that the latter’s preferences for the level of individual organism is arbitrary, as is their bias against multilevel selection (Shelton & Michod 2014a).
After the “eclipse of Darwinism”, which had reigned around 1900 (Bowler 1983), neo-Darwinism once again provided a unifying, explanatory framework for biology that also included the more descriptive, naturalist disciplines like systematics, biogeography, and paleontology (Provine 1971; Mayr & Provine 1980; Smocoovitis 1996).
adaptationism | biological individuals | biology: philosophy of | creationism | Darwinism | evolution | fitness | genetic drift | genetics: population | history, philosophy of | laws of nature | natural selection | natural selection: units and levels of | reduction, scientific: in biology | species | teleology: teleological notions in biology
adaptationism | altruism: biological | biological individuals | biology: philosophy of | causation: probabilistic | Darwinism | evolution | game theory: evolutionary | genetics: evolutionary | genetics: molecular | genetics: population | molecular biology | natural selection | natural selection: units and levels of | teleology: teleological arguments for God’s existence | teleology: teleological notions in biology
As for (ii), “Darwinism starts out more likely on naturalism than on theism” because “Darwinism is highly optional on theism”, as evidenced by the fact that “an omnipotent God would have many non-Darwinian ways to create minds, bodies, and souls and would not be limited to Darwinian or even physical constraints”, whereas on naturalism, “the options for developing life are much more constrained, especially in the relevant time frame” (360–61).
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As for ii Darwinism starts out more likely on naturalism than on theism because Darwinism is highly optional on theism as evidenced by the fact that an omnipotent God would have many non-Darwinian ways to create minds bodies and souls and would not be limited to Darwinian or even physical constraints whereas on naturalism the options for developing life are much more constrained especially in the relevant time frame 360–61