Muʿāwiyah then established himself as the first Umayyad caliph.
The Grand Mufti of Syria, Sheikh Ahmed Kuftaro, accompanied the Pope to the ancient Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, where they both called for peace and unity of all faiths in the region.
The harsh Umayyad general al-Ḥajjāj captured the city, and the pretender perished.
This situation gave rise to continual discontent with Umayyad rule that took various forms.
Visigoths had ruled Spain for two centuries before they were overrun by the Umayyad empire.
The last Umayyad, Marwān II (reigned 744–750), was defeated at the Battle of the Great Zab River (750).
But the Umayyad government, burdened with imperial expenses, often refused to exempt the Iranian converts.
The Umayyad dynasty lasted less than a century in Damascus before it was driven out in 750 by the ʿAbbāsid dynasty.
To promote the revolution aimed to destroy Umayyad power, the movement exploited Shiʿi aspirations and other forces of disenchantment.
Its loyalty was suspect, for Umayyad sentiment lingered on, and the last pro-Umayyad revolt was not crushed until 905.
…local Muslim leaders in northern Spain who sought to escape the authority of the Umayyad ruler of Cordoba, Charlemagne invaded Spain in 778.
The expanse of the Umayyad empire and its program of Arabization were responsible for spreading Islam and the Arabic language over a vast area.
During the Umayyad caliphate, a number of poets indulged in a series of poetic jousts in Al-Mirbad, the central square of the city Al-Baṣrah (Basra).
Great Mosque of Damascus, also called Umayyad Mosque, the earliest surviving stone mosque, built between ad 705 and 715 by the Umayyad Caliph al-Walīd I.
Another group of Zīrids, who had gone to Spain to serve in the Berber army of the Umayyad al-Muẓaffar (1002–08), established themselves as an independent dynasty (1012–90) in Granada under Zāwī ibn Zīrī.
There were three Umayyad rulers between 680 and 685, and only by nearly 20 years of military campaigning did the next one, ʿAbd al-Malik, succeed in reestablishing the authority of the Umayyad capital of Damascus.
The origins of the Yazīdī faith can be traced to areas of the Kurdish mountains of northern Iraq where pockets of devotion to the fallen Umayyad dynasty persisted long after the death of the last Umayyad caliph, the half-Kurdish Marwan II, in 750.
The first ʿAbbāsid caliph, al-Saffāḥ (749–754), ordered the elimination of the entire Umayyad clan; the only Umayyad of note who escaped was ʿAbd al-Raḥman, who made his way to Spain and established an Umayyad dynasty that lasted until 1031.
Greater concern for the east was manifested by the new caliphate’s choice of Baghdad as its capital—situated on the Tigris a short distance north of Ctesiphon and designed as a new city, to be free of the factions of the old Umayyad garrison cities of Al-Kūfah, Wāsiṭ, and Al-Baṣrah.
., the mosaics of the Umayyad Mosque of Damascus), hieratic Byzantine themes (e.g., the Umayyad Mosque of Damascus and Qaṣr ʿAmrah), Sāsānian motifs, Central Asian motifs (especially the sculpture from Umayyad palaces), and the many regional styles of ornamentation that had developed in all parts of the pre-Islamic world.
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the mosaics of the Umayyad Mosque of Damascus hieratic Byzantine themes eg the Umayyad Mosque of Damascus and Qaṣr ʿAmrah Sāsānian motifs Central Asian motifs especially the sculpture from Umayyad palaces and the many regional styles of ornamentation that had developed in all parts of the pre-Islamic world