States of affairs are similar to thoughts.
Furthermore, some states of affairs entail certain properties.
Therefore, states of affairs can be the fundamental bearers of modal properties.
Perhaps then a judgment represents a state of affairs but does not represent it as a state of affairs.
Hereafter, “states of affairs” is used only for states of affairs that exist whether they obtain or not.
But the state of affairs Hesperus’s being a planet is just the state of affairs Phosphorus’s being a planet.
But intuitively, the state of affairs Juliet’s loving Romeo is different from the state of affairs Romeo’s loving Juliet.
Additionally, analogous to molecular facts, there are molecular states of affairs — conjunctions of atomic states of affairs.
Now facts may be nothing but states of affairs that obtain and events states of affairs that obtain at some times and not at others.
In the previous sections we have seen that states of affairs are of value if the necessarily co-obtaining states of affairs are distinct.
Thoughts cannot be reduced to states of affairs and the reduction of states of affairs to sets of referentially equivalent thoughts is unwarranted.
If sentences refer to such states of affairs, logically equivalent sentences can refer to different states of affairs and therefore have different semantic properties.
It is because some properties are predicated of some objects that (i) they form a state of affairs (ii) such that this state of affairs depends on them and can be said to involve them.
Second, the appeal to necessary moral states of affairs as the stopping point for explanation seems to assume that necessary moral states of affairs somehow are not in need of explanation.
Chisholm held that propositions are those states of affairs such that either the state of affairs or its negation always occurs (on Chisholm’s notion of state of affairs, see Kim 1979).
If Vesuvius is part of the obtaining state of affairs Vesuvius’s being a volcano, the state of affairs must by the transitivity of part-of contain the parts of solidified lava that are parts of Vesuvius.
It could be, for example, that the explanation of them appeals to a contingent nonmoral state of affairs plus some necessary state of affairs concerning a connection between that contingent nonmoral state of affairs and the moral state of affairs.
Elvis’s being the president of the US), are there negative states of affairs (e.g. the not being red of the White House) or existential states of affairs (the existence of Barack Obama) or impersonal states of affairs (the state of affairs that it is raining)?
And once again the friend of states of affairs may retreat to the safer claims that the proposition that Sam is sad is true only if the state of affairs that Sam is sad obtains and that if the proposition that Sam is sad is true, it is true because the state of affairs obtains.
In order to solve it, we need to find a relation between the state of affairs a’s being F and a and being F that (i) does not make a and being F parts of the state of affairs, (ii) allows one to distinguish between necessarily co-obtaining states of affairs, and (iii) distinguishes the state of affairs a’s being F from other objects that, intuitively speaking, involve a and being F.
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In order to solve it we need to find a relation between the state of affairs as being F and a and being F that i does not make a and being F parts of the state of affairs ii allows one to distinguish between necessarily co-obtaining states of affairs and iii distinguishes the state of affairs as being F from other objects that intuitively speaking involve a and being F