Judgment aggregation will be briefly introduced in the next section.
Platelet aggregation is the property of platelets to clump with each other to form a platelet plug.
Two points about the concept of an aggregation rule are worth noting.
In judgment aggregation, by contrast, the picture is more complicated.
We saw earlier that, unlike utilitarianism, contractualism rejects aggregation.
Belief merging and judgment aggregation do not only differ in the type of inputs they aggregate.
We return to aggregation in section 8; and consider one common objection to impartiality in section 9.
The theory of judgment aggregation represents these aggreganda in propositional logic (or another suitable logic).
The present way of representing an aggregation rule helps us see how many possible aggregation rules there are (see also List 2011).
Stewart and Quintana (2018) argue that imprecise aggregation methods have some nice properties that no precise aggregation method do.
As stated previously, aggregation also enhances possibilities for successful propagation of a species and possibly may afford some protection from predators.
(This condition reformulates in the judgment aggregation framework the independence of the irrelevant alternatives condition in Arrow’s theorem for preference aggregation.)
This led Dietrich and List to say that judgment aggregation can be seen as a more general problem than preference aggregation (see Grossi and Pigozzi 2014 for details on such reformulation).
Unlike what happened in social choice, at the beginning the literature of judgment aggregation focused on the axiomatic method and only few concrete aggregation rules were proposed and studied.
A welcomed side-effect of this work is that it enlarged the class of concrete aggregation procedures for judgment aggregation, until then limited mainly to premise and conclusion-based procedures.
the result at each level of chemical aggregation is the instantiation of another PNS, grounded in, or at least in principle derivable from, the molecular interactions that follow the PNS in the environment operating at one or more lower levels of aggregation.
At the heart of social choice theory is the analysis of preference aggregation, understood as the aggregation of several individuals' preference rankings of two or more social alternatives into a single, collective preference ranking (or choice) over these alternatives.
Leibniz, for example, argues that there cannot be only “beings by aggregation” (i.e., composite objects), because this would lead to an infinite regress, with each being by aggregation being made up of further beings by aggregation, and so on ad infinitum.
The formal methods developed in belief merging have been exported and applied in areas of social epistemology, like elections and preference aggregation (Meyer et al. 2001), group consensus (Gauwin et al. 2005), and judgment aggregation (Pigozzi 2006) to which we return in Section 2.2.
Examples of other such aggregation problems to which Arrow's theorem has been applied include: intrapersonal aggregation problems (e.g., May 1954; Hurley 1985), constraint aggregation in optimality theory in linguistics (e.g., Harbour and List 2000), theory choice (e.g., Okasha 2011; cf.
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