An argument-text schema is a schema whose instances are argument-texts.
Like his argument for (1), Spinoza’s argument for (2) relies on the PSR.
The One Over Many argument is now widely considered to be a bad argument.
The logical fatalist argument parallel to our basic argument is as follows:
Like Searle’s argument, Leibniz’ argument takes the form of a thought experiment.
Section 4 will develop and assess a second argument for platonism, namely, the Singular Term argument.
A person might conceivably need an argument for the second level claim that the person knows God without argument.
An argument with a similar structure to the modal argument has been deployed to rule out indeterminate identities.
This argument, which is an argument for priority monism by way of principles of modality, may be posed as follows:
The latter argument has been vigorously criticized by Plantinga (1998), but Rowe (1998) has remained confident that the new argument is sound.
Newman (1801–1890) did not formulate the “factory girl” argument as a pragmatic argument, but the argument certainly lends itself to such a formulation:
Within informal argument, commonly used schemes include Argument by Sign, Argument by Analogy, Argument by Example, and Slippery Slope Argument.
It’s an argument for incompatibilism only if it’s an argument for hard determinism—that is, if it’s an argument for the thesis that determinism is true and because of this we are never responsible for anything.
He does, however, identify two argument forms, the argument from example (paradeigma) and the argument from likeness (homoiotes), both closely related to what would we now recognize as an analogical argument.
A promising argument in support of the moral and rational permissibility of employing pragmatic reasons in belief-formation is erected upon the base of what we might call the Duty Argument (or perhaps more precisely, the Duty Argument scheme):
Rhetoric continues to see arguing as a vehicle for persuasion; dialectic understands arguing as an exchange between two or more arguers; and logic emphasizes the probative or epistemic merit of an argument, making a good argument an argument which justifies the point of view that it proposes.
If Wainwright is correct, then James’s argument is not just a pragmatic argument, but also an epistemic argument, since he is arguing that one of the pragmatic benefits is a more reliable access to reality (see also the explication of James’ argument via contemporary epistemic utility theory in Pettigrew 2016).
The only clear argument that Bhartṛhari offers is an argument from instability: even if one presents a skillfully prepared argument in favor of a view, the conclusion of the argument can always be undercut or rebutted; for it is possible that someone else who is more skilled at argumentation might explain the matter differently (Ibid., 1.34).
A proponent of the moral argument who viewed the argument in this way might in that case regard the argument as part of a cumulative case for theism, and hold that the moral argument must be supplemented by other possible arguments, such as the “fine-tuning” argument from the physical constants of the universe, or an argument from religious experience.
The latter include, to take only a few examples: competing accounts of the nature of argument; criteria for argument evaluation; argument schemes; fallacies; deductive, inductive, and conductive models of inference; rhetorical and dialectical approaches to argument; onus and burden of proof; the empirical study of argument; argument diagramming (or “mapping”); cognitive biases; the history of argument analysis; the role of emotion in argument; and the rules that govern argumentative exchange in different communicative contexts.
- a fact or assertion offered as evidence that something is true
Example: it was a strong argument that his hypothesis was true
- a contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement
Example: they were involved in a violent argument
- a discussion in which reasons are advanced for and against some proposition or proposal
Example: the argument over foreign aid goes on and on
- a summary of the subject or plot of a literary work or play or movie
Example: the editor added the argument to the poem
- (computer science) a reference or value that is passed to a function, procedure, subroutine, command, or program
- a variable in a logical or mathematical expression whose value determines the dependent variable; if f(x)=y, x is the independent variable
- a course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating a truth or falsehood; the methodical process of logical reasoning
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The latter include to take only a few examples competing accounts of the nature of argument criteria for argument evaluation argument schemes fallacies deductive inductive and conductive models of inference rhetorical and dialectical approaches to argument onus and burden of proof the empirical study of argument argument diagramming or mapping cognitive biases the history of argument analysis the role of emotion in argument and the rules that govern argumentative exchange in different communicative contexts