Of S’s justification for believing h itself.
If the Christian God does exist, the agnostic gains eternal life by believing in him and loses an infinite good by not believing.
Crucially, SNP voters strongly take Sturgeon’s side, with 49% believing she has generally been telling the truth, and only 13% believing she has not.
Therefore, by CP, S is justified in believing h or not-e.
However, it is necessary that you have justification for believing (1) and (2).
Imagining and believing are both cognitive attitudes that are representational.
However, I am not justified in believing the conjunction of these propositions.
So practical values, non-epistemic values, don't uniformly favor believing truly.
But, given Mere Lemmas, h cannot justify S in believing any proposition unless e does.
Thus believing in God goes well beyond believing that there is a god.
If the former is true, the latter rules out believing the premises of the argument that supports both claims.
(This intermediate state between believing and not believing was first uncovered in Kaplan 1969.
Or maybe, we said, p itself, and not whatever justifies us in believing p, justifies us in believing q.
In Twins E2 can give s justification for believing P2 only if s has independent justification for believing Q2 in the first instance.
Whereas believing that it is raining and believing that it is sunny are states with distinct contents but of the same psychological type.
For in none of these cases s has justification for believing p, s knows that p entails q, and s fails to have justification for believing q.
In epistemology, Chisholm took as his fundamental primitive concept the idea we express when we say that believing p is more reasonable for S than believing q would be.
She has provided a modified version of L12 that combines the warranting context condition, and the not believing that one is not warranting condition, in the single condition of believing that one is in a warranting context:
In his Pensées (1657–58), Pascal posed the following argument to show that belief in the Christian religion is rational: If the Christian God does not exist, the agnostic loses little by believing in him and gains correspondingly little by not believing.
Ampliativity: It is possible for a subject S to be justified in believing h on the basis of evidence e even if S does not have independent justification (of at least the same degree of S’s justification for believing h) for believing a proposition p such that p and e together entail h.
- the cognitive process that leads to convictions
Example: seeing is believing
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