One by-product of mass action can be collective violence.
Angelo Corlett’s definition of a collective action is typical here.
We have evaluated the effect of collective property on development in the area, comparing Afro-Colombian communities who have collective land titles with those who have none.
Four types of causes for collective panic are generally recognized.
Collective poverty affects a large number of people for a long period of time.
Second,it demands that each the collective preference be responsive to the preferences of the members of the collective.
The paradigm of collective intentionality in the recent debate is joint intention (collective practical intentionality).
Collective violence, violent form of collective behaviour engaged in by large numbers of people responding to a common stimulus.
In the non-summative sense, the subject of collective self-deception is the collective itself, not simply the individuals comprising it.
For, it is the moral blameworthiness of the collective itself, rather than that of its members, that constitutes collective moral responsibility.
Contemporary critics of collective responsibility do not generally go as far as Lewis does here in equating collective responsibility with barbarism.
The backward looking notion of collective responsibility cited above is what most philosophers have in mind when they talk about collective responsibility.
This raises important questions about collective responsibility that are well treated elsewhere in this encyclopedia (see the entry on collective responsibility.
The above claim clearly makes sense if we are talking about keeping collective responsibility in tact qua collective responsibility in our efforts to ascribe it in practice.
Critics of collective responsibility assume that if such a unified moral self is not possible in the case of collective entities, collective moral responsibility does not make sense.
The debates about collective responsibility began at least six decades ago and by now constitute a distinct field of research in moral, political, and legal philosophy (cf. the entry on collective responsibility).
With the more or less continuous shifts of values in any society, emerging values are first given group expression in collective behaviour; efforts to revitalize declining values also bring forth collective behaviour.
Therefore, the distinction that concerns all mass nouns is not that between collective and distributive construals (nor that between collective, distributive and intermediate readings), but rather, that between collective and non-collective construals.
Within the context of collective behaviour, situational collective violence can be understood as spontaneous behaviour, and organized collective violence and institutional collective violence can be combined into the category of organized collective behaviour.
In response to these challenges, proponents of collective responsibility set out to show that collective responsibility, as well as group intentions, collective action, and group blameworthiness, are metaphysically possible and can be ascribed to agents fairly in at least some, if not all, cases.
- done by or characteristic of individuals acting together
Example: the collective mind
- members of a cooperative enterprise
- forming a whole or aggregate
- set up on the principle of collectivism or ownership and production by the workers involved usually under the supervision of a government
Example: collective farms
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