A time-varying cosmological constant would thus be an easy fix.
Furthermore, the notion of a deity often plays a central role in these cosmological theories.
Cosmological red-shift results from the expansion of space itself and not from the motion of the individual body.
Craig formulates the kalām cosmological argument this way (in Craig and Smith 1993: chap. 1):
But this need not be the sense in which “necessary being” is understood in the cosmological argument.
Recent work, codified by Harada et al. (2018), shows just how different such cosmological singularities can be.
Indeed, Einstein immediately saw the potential to apply general relativity to large-scale cosmological questions.
If it were found to be exactly -1, that would make dark energy something physicists call a cosmological constant.
The cosmological argument came under serious assault in the 18th century, first by David Hume and then by Immanuel Kant.
Suppose that the theist takes a harder line and says that theism requires (or favors) cosmological models with a finitely old universe.
The basic challenge in cosmology regards how to test and evaluate cosmological models, given our limited access to the unique universe.
By then, though, the cosmological constant had been seized upon by quantum theorists, themselves in the midst of turning physics on its head.
Rosen also questions whether there is any intuitive connection between considerations of width of cosmological role and issues of realism and non-realism.
Observations made in the 1920s, though, showed that the equations’ prediction of a dynamic universe was correct and the cosmological constant was quietly dropped.
While Rowe had defended the cosmological argument, his reservations about the principle of sufficient reason prevents his accepting the argument as fully satisfying.
As discussed in a moment (§1.3), claims to objective knowledge about these cosmological ideas, such as the claim that the universe has a beginning in time or the opposing claim that it does not, lead us into contradictions or “antinomies.”
Whereas what we want is that the narrowness of cosmological role is an a priori matter: one does not need to conduct an empirical investigation to convince oneself that facts about the funny fail to have wide cosmological role.
Aquinas, Saint Thomas | atonement | Augustine, Saint | cosmological argument | Descartes, René: ontological argument | faith | God, arguments for the existence of: moral arguments | ontological arguments | teleology: teleological arguments for God’s existence | trinity
Cosmology is a borderline case: since observations of cosmological significance are so rare and hard-won—Hubble’s observation of the red shift was one of the first solid ones—it is very difficult, not to mention brave, to tie one’s cosmological theory to Popper’s falsificationist principle as a guarantee of scientific acceptability.
But although his personal philosophical work was done, and kinematic relativity seemed moribund as a research program, in the late 1990s it was rediscovered, and Milne’s model, as it was christened, came into renewed interest as a source of predictions for cosmological behaviour such as rates of cosmic expansion, and production of cosmological strings.
- pertaining to the branch of astronomy dealing with the origin and history and structure and dynamics of the universe
- pertaining to the branch of philosophy dealing with the elements and laws and especially the characteristics of the universe such as space and time and causality
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But although his personal philosophical work was done and kinematic relativity seemed moribund as a research program in the late 1990s it was rediscovered and Milnes model as it was christened came into renewed interest as a source of predictions for cosmological behaviour such as rates of cosmic expansion and production of cosmological strings