Moreover, few philosophers today are substance dualists.
This group of enthusiasts may have been proto-Gnostics (early religious dualists not yet organized into definite sects).
Many people, most of whom would not regard themselves as dualists, think of the brain as being like a computer, and the mind as being like a piece of software that runs on that computer.
Consider the best-known of classic mind-body dualists, René Descartes.
Dualists who reject the identity of mental and physical events will surely object.
Other property dualists, including some emergentists, are willing to extend the thesis to all mental properties.
Dualists may reply that the greater simplicity in the view of modality has been achieved only by adding complexity to the semantic theory.
Substance dualism is also often dubbed ‘Cartesian dualism’, but some substance dualists are keen to distinguish their theories from Descartes's.
Dualists can accept that thesis, because dualists can maintain that there are fundamental psychophysical laws (McLaughlin 1992, Chalmers 1996).
Substance dualists believe that thinking is a function of a non-material, separately existing, substance that somehow “combines” with the body to make a person.
In fact, we can see an on-going debate between the materialists and dualists on these topics all the way through the eighteenth and into the early nineteenth century in England.
Dualists about metaphysical and epistemic modality (dualists, for short) hold that the phenomena reflect a deep and fundamental distinction between two kinds of modality.
Although gnosticism did not constitute a single movement, most gnostics were religious dualists who held that matter is inferior and the spirit is good and that salvation is attained by esoteric knowledge, or gnosis.
To dualists, those same impasses will signify the bankruptcy of the physicalist program and the need to recognize consciousness as a fundamental constituent of reality in its own right (Robinson 1982, Foster 1989, 1996, Chalmers 1996).
Physicalists cannot just say zombies are ruled out by the laws of nature, since even dualists can agree they are impossible in that sense: that it is by nomological necessity that the physical facts about us bring consciousness with them.
Both substance dualists and property dualists must develop the details of their theories in ways that articulate the specific natures of the relevant non-physical features of reality with which they equate consciousness or to which they appeal in order to explain it.
Source physicalists, whether they are ontological physicalists or ontological dualists, believe that the physical world existed before the mental world and caused the mental world to come into existence, which implies that all mental entities are causally dependent on physical entities.
To see that the attitude is not sufficient, imagine a situation in which physics postulates properties or objects which are like those postulated by traditional dualists; as Ney puts it imagine “it is the year 3000 AD and physicists have been forced to introduce irreducible mental entities into their theory.” (2008, p. 12).
During the next two decades Clement was the intellectual leader of the Alexandrian Christian community: he wrote several ethical and theological works and biblical commentaries; he combatted heretical Gnostics (religious dualists who believed in salvation through esoteric knowledge that revealed to men their spiritual origins, identities, and destinies); he engaged in polemics with Christians who were suspicious of an intellectualized Christianity; and he educated persons who later became theological and ecclesiastical leaders (e.g., Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem).
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During the next two decades Clement was the intellectual leader of the Alexandrian Christian community he wrote several ethical and theological works and biblical commentaries he combatted heretical Gnostics religious dualists who believed in salvation through esoteric knowledge that revealed to men their spiritual origins identities and destinies he engaged in polemics with Christians who were suspicious of an intellectualized Christianity and he educated persons who later became theological and ecclesiastical leaders eg Alexander bishop of Jerusalem