So how might one argue for constructive empiricism?
For full treatment, see positivism: Logical positivism and logical empiricism.
It will be noted that this updating did not leave empiricism unchanged.
This article will begin by outlining three different forms of empiricism.
But it also takes the form of what we may describe as a cognitive empiricism.
Twentieth century philosophy of science was largely dominated by logical empiricism.
Medicine took as much from philosophical scepticism, as philosophical empiricism took from medicine.
The second of these views, in particular, seems incompatible with both a tabula rasa and a cognitive empiricism.
Empiricism regarding concepts and empiricism regarding knowledge do not strictly imply each other.
But alongside this qualified genetic empiricism, we also find expressions of a justificatory empiricism.
With his doctrine of constructive empiricism, van Fraassen is widely credited with rehabilitating scientific anti-realism.
This broad definition accords with the derivation of the term empiricism from the ancient Greek word empeiria, “experience.”
Lakatos dubs this development “empiricism” (or “quasi-empiricism”) and hails it on the one hand whilst condemning it on the other.
But it was also responding to dialectic within philosophy’s epistemological positions, particularly the tension between British empiricism, rationalism (see entry on rationalism vs. empiricism), and the Kantian synthesis.
Two other viewpoints related to but not the same as empiricism are the pragmatism of the American philosopher and psychologist William James, an aspect of which was what he called radical empiricism, and logical positivism, sometimes also called logical empiricism.
The possibility of combining empiricism and realism is made to depend on an affirmative answer to this question, which Salmon claimed had not been given serious consideration by most philosophers of science, including van Fraassen, whose constructive empiricism implies a negative answer to the key question, and therefore the incompatibility between empiricism and realism.
Chappell 2004, ad loc.) 187–201 is an indirect demonstration that false belief cannot be explained by empiricism (whether this means a developed philosophical theory, or the instinctive empiricism of some people’s common sense), then it is likely that the First Puzzle states the basic difficulty for empiricism, to which the other four Puzzles look for alternative solutions.
This discussion has focused on approaches that fall under the general description “empiricist,” many of which owe much to Longino's contextual empiricism (see the entries on feminist epistemology and philosophy of science, feminist social epistemology, and the social dimensions of scientific knowledge) and so we will close with a brief description of the features of contextual empiricism that bear on the question of objectivity.
While it has been standard to distinguish feminist empiricism from feminist standpoint theory since Harding's 1986 categorization of feminist alternatives to traditional epistemology into three types—feminist empiricism, feminist standpoint theory, and feminist postmodernism—as we shall see, recent analyses of feminist standpoint theory and refinement to feminist empiricism suggest that the views are not only compatible but may converge (Intemann 2010).
abduction | constructive empiricism | empiricism: logical | feminist philosophy, interventions: epistemology and philosophy of science | feminist philosophy, topics: perspectives on science | incommensurability: of scientific theories | Kuhn, Thomas | models in science | rationality: historicist theories of | science: theory and observation in | scientific explanation | scientific knowledge: social dimensions of | scientific objectivity | scientific progress | scientific revolutions | structural realism | theoretical terms in science | truthlikeness | underdetermination, of scientific theories | Vienna Circle
- (philosophy) the doctrine that knowledge derives from experience
- the application of empirical methods in any art or science
- medical practice and advice based on observation and experience in ignorance of scientific findings
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abduction | constructive empiricism | empiricism logical | feminist philosophy interventions epistemology and philosophy of science | feminist philosophy topics perspectives on science | incommensurability of scientific theories | Kuhn Thomas | models in science | rationality historicist theories of | science theory and observation in | scientific explanation | scientific knowledge social dimensions of | scientific objectivity | scientific progress | scientific revolutions | structural realism | theoretical terms in science | truthlikeness | underdetermination of scientific theories | Vienna Circle