Not enough evidence?
That is not evidence.
In this respect, his account of evidence resembles Williamson's (2000) later theory.
As well as summarising the current evidence, these should also highlight gaps in the evidence base, and make action-oriented recommendations where the evidence allows.
James is not arguing against conforming one’s belief to the evidence, whenever there’s a preponderance of evidence.
Let's call evidence in the former sense normative evidence, and evidence in the latter sense indicator evidence.
Good (1967) argues on expected utility grounds that it is always rational to gather evidence before acting, provided that evidence is free of cost.
On the other hand, Husserl denies both that purely logical sentences say anything about self-evidence and that self-evidence is a criterion of truth.
The most influential reply to BKDA is to say that, when I acquire evidence that I don’t have hands, such evidence makes me cease to know that I have hands.
More generally, in what circumstances, exactly, is evidence of evidence (for some proposition) evidence for that proposition (Fitelson 2012, Feldman 2014)?
Higher-order evidence is evidence about what evidence one possesses or what conclusions one’s evidence supports (see entry on evidence).
That a competent evidential evaluator has evaluated a body of evidence to support a proposition is evidence that the body of evidence in question does in fact support that proposition.
In summary, at least four possible conceptions of legal evidence are in currency: as an object of sensory evidence, as a fact, as an inferential premise and as that which counts as evidence in law.
Rule 404 recognizes the explosive nature of prior-bad-acts evidence and instructs the judge, “In a criminal case this evidence is admissible only if the probative value of the evidence outweighs its potential for unfair prejudice.”
Thus she argues for a notion of evidence that is not too restrictive, takes account of the difficulties in combining and selecting evidence, and allows for contextual judgement on what types of evidence are best suited to the inquiry at hand (Cartwright 2013, 2019).
Once we get clear on the distinctions between total evidence, net evidence and the balance of evidence, we see that each of PR(H, E), LR(H, E) and LR(H, H*; E) measures an important evidential relationship, but that the relationships they measure are importantly different.
Little or no evidence is available concerning the chordophones of prehistoric times: the earliest iconographic evidence and the oldest surviving specimens come from Mesopotamia and Egypt, and evidence concerning instruments earlier than these can be gleaned only from myth and legend.
Significantly, defeating evidence can itself be defeated by yet further evidence: at a still later point in time, I might acquire evidence E″ which suggests that you are not a pathological liar after all, the evidence to that effect having been an artifice of your sworn enemy.
Applied to cases of peer disagreement, the first-order evidence is the evidence directly pertaining to the disputed proposition, and each peer opinion about the disputed proposition is the higher-order evidence (it is evidence that the first-order evidence supports the respective attitudes).
One might hold, for instance, that belief need not always be based on evidence (though of course the moderate Evidentialist could agree with that), or that belief requires evidence but its degree needn't be proportioned to the strength of the evidence, or that belief requires evidence but need not be based on that evidence, or that belief requires that there be evidence even if the subject doesn't possess that evidence.
- your basis for belief or disbelief; knowledge on which to base belief
Example: the evidence that smoking causes lung cancer is very compelling
- provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one's behavior, attitude, or external attributes
- an indication that makes something evident
Example: his trembling was evidence of his fear
- provide evidence for
- (law) all the means by which any alleged matter of fact whose truth is investigated at judicial trial is established or disproved
- give evidence
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One might hold for instance that belief need not always be based on evidence though of course the moderate Evidentialist could agree with that or that belief requires evidence but its degree needn't be proportioned to the strength of the evidence or that belief requires evidence but need not be based on that evidence or that belief requires that there be evidence even if the subject doesn't possess that evidence