Thus far we have not considered what the expressions might mean when so used.
The curlers’ somber expressions throughout most of the news conference gave the impression the silver medals hung heavy around their necks.
According to a document published by the European Commission, a company called European Dynamics, based out of Luxembourg, has created a system called “IBORDERCTRL” which will analyse the facial expressions of those at the border, looking for “micro-expressions”.
Only significative complex expressions are true or false; simple expressions are neither true nor false (NSLPery I.2).
Also, due to our focus, ‘mass expressions’ henceforth refers only to concrete mass expressions, except where indicated.
That is why, he says, in our discussions we argue with expressions and about those expressions in one and the same breath.
Rules of meaning, the idea would be, are rules for the use of expressions that determine the meaning of these expressions.
As a result, it became increasingly evident that complex expressions of the same grammatical form can have different conditions of satisfaction.
Indexicals are commonly called context-sensitive expressions (or context-dependent expressions) but the two terms tend to be used differently.
Productivity: RTM postulates a finite set of primitive Mentalese expressions, combinable into a potential infinity of complex Mentalese expressions.
But the constraints apply only to the meanings of complex expressions—for all (C) tells us the meanings of simple expressions could be tables and chairs.
The key idea is that compositionality requires the existence of a homomorphism between the expressions of a language and the meanings of those expressions.
The analysis of descriptions has been extended from canonical examples of descriptions (expressions of the form ‘the F’ and ‘an F’) to expressions that don’t have this surface form.
These “situations” are typically called contexts of utterance, or just contexts, and expressions whose reference depends on the context are called indexicals (see entry) or context-dependent expressions.
In many languages, like English, nominal expressions headed by common nouns can be divided into two subtypes, mass expressions (like wine, silverware, wisdom) and count expressions (like cat, army, idea).
The availability of an adjective corresponding to “taste” has allowed for the retiring of a series of awkward expressions: the expressions “judgment of taste,” “emotion of taste” and “quality of taste” have given way to the arguably less offensive ‘aesthetic judgment,’ ‘aesthetic emotion,’ and ‘aesthetic quality.’
Just as Paul Ekman argued for universality in emotional expressions among humans across cultures (Ekman et al. 1969), animal researchers have argued that at least some human emotions are also found in chimpanzees, and that chimpanzee facial expressions are homologous to human facial expressions in morphology and function.
Whichever set of symbols we select as our so-called logical constants, the meanings of all the other expressions in the sentences—the non-logical expressions—are determined by the interpretations (or, as we call them in the GTT, ‘cases’), and since we are quantifying over all such interpretations, in effect we are simply ignoring the meanings of all non-logical expressions.
The circle can also be put in terms of part-whole relations: we are trying to establish a reading for the whole text, and for this we appeal to readings of its partial expressions; and yet because we are dealing with meaning, with making sense, where expressions only make sense or not in relation to others, the readings of partial expressions depend on those of others, and ultimately of the whole.
Theorists have proposed contextualist theories for many other expressions, including: Conditionals (Lewis 1973, Kratzer 2012, and the entry on conditionals); deontic terms, such as ‘ought’ and ‘should’ (Lewis 1973, Kratzer 2012, Portner 2009); perspectival expressions, such as ‘come’, ‘go’, ‘left’, ‘right’, and ‘behind’ (Lewis 1979b); weather predicates, such as ‘rain’ and ‘hot’ (see Sennett 2008 for an overview); propositional attitude verbs, such as ‘believe’ (Richard 1990, and the entry on propositional attitude reports); common nouns, such as ‘student’ and ‘table’ (Stanley and Szabo 2000); and vague expressions, which include nearly all expressions in natural languages (Raffman 1996, Soames 1999, Fara 2000, and the entry on vagueness).
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Theorists have proposed contextualist theories for many other expressions including Conditionals Lewis 1973 Kratzer 2012 and the entry on conditionals deontic terms such as ought and should Lewis 1973 Kratzer 2012 Portner 2009 perspectival expressions such as come go left right and behind Lewis 1979b weather predicates such as rain and hot see Sennett 2008 for an overview propositional attitude verbs such as believe Richard 1990 and the entry on propositional attitude reports common nouns such as student and table Stanley and Szabo 2000 and vague expressions which include nearly all expressions in natural languages Raffman 1996 Soames 1999 Fara 2000 and the entry on vagueness