But the point of the inference is clear enough.
According to the former classification, an inference is…
Statistical Inference for Stochastic Processes is an international journal publishing articles on parametric and nonparametric inference for discrete- and continuous-time stochastic processes, and their applications to biology, chemistry, physics, finance, economics, and other sciences.
The question here is what it means to “stipulate” an inference rule.
Inferences based on valid inference rules are also said to be valid.
Inference is nonmonotonic, but logic (according to Israel) is essentially monotonic.
For example, the transitive inference (25) sounds perfectly reasonable, as does the antecedent strengthening inference (26).
Dretske (1977, 261–262) and Armstrong (1983, 52–59, and 1991) adopt a model of inductive inference that involves an inference to the best explanation.
The Nomological-Explanatory solution relies on taking IBE as a rational, a priori form of inference which is distinct from inductive inferences like inference I.
The case can thus be reconstructed as an inference to the best explanation (Lipton 2004), or perhaps preferably as an inference to the only explanation (Bird 2007).
We could not act as we do if we could not rely on inference (etc.) albeit inference does depend on generalization that (often, not invariably) outstrips experience.
In Implication and Linear Inference, for example, Bosanquet defends his long-standing view that inference is “every process by which knowledge extends itself” (op. cit., p. 2).
But instead of relying just on extrapolation from correlations, inductive inference, including enumerative induction, can take the form of inference to the best explanation (ibe).
In sum, because the constructive empiricist rejects Inference to the Best Explanation, she is not moved by arguments for scientific realism that make use of that rule of inference.
Indeed, inference and argument are but two sides of the same coin: an argument can be thought, and hence become an inference; an inference can be expressed, and hence become an argument.
Proponents of this approach take Inference to the Best Explanation to be a mode of inference which is distinct from the type of “extrapolative” inductive inference that Hume was trying to justify.
Alternatively, one may understand a scheme as a kind of inference rule (see Prakken 2010b), some critical questions ensuring the truth of the premises, others ensuring that the context of the inference is appropriate.
Because the truth of axioms and the validity of basic rules of inference cannot themselves be established by inference—since inference presupposes them—or by observation—which can never establish necessary truths—they may be held to be objects of intuition.
Some think that abduction warrants an inference only to the probable truth of the best explanation, others that it warrants an inference only to the approximate truth of the best explanation, and still others that it warrants an inference only to the probable approximate truth.
Among them are: the conditions under which inference can take place, and the conditions under which the result is a knowledge-episode (TS 49, 54); the correct account of the inference-warranting relation, between the inferential sign and the property-to-be-inferred, called the ‘pervasion’ or ‘vyāpti’ relation (TS 50); the distinction between inference and demonstration (svārtha- and parārtha- inference) (TS 52, 53); the three-fold classification of inference types, those which are ‘universally positive’ (kevalānvayin), those which are ‘universally negative’ (kevala-vyatirekin), and those which are combined positive and negative (anvaya-vyatirekin) (TS 55); the types of inferential fallacy (hetvābhāsa) (TS 57-64).
inference
noun cognition
- the reasoning involved in drawing a conclusion or making a logical judgment on the basis of circumstantial evidence and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of direct observation
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Among them are the conditions under which inference can take place and the conditions under which the result is a knowledge-episode TS 49 54 the correct account of the inference-warranting relation between the inferential sign and the property-to-be-inferred called the pervasion or vyāpti relation TS 50 the distinction between inference and demonstration svārtha- and parārtha- inference TS 52 53 the three-fold classification of inference types those which are universally positive kevalānvayin those which are universally negative kevala-vyatirekin and those which are combined positive and negative anvaya-vyatirekin TS 55 the types of inferential fallacy hetvābhāsa TS 57-64