Other passages from the Enquiry tend to confirm the introspective construal.
André Gide, in similarly sensitive and introspective fashion, wrestled with the psychological difficulties arising from the conflict between a bourgeois society’s values and the individual’s instinctive drives.
It is easy to become depressed and when you are isolated and faced with yourself there is a tendency to become very introspective – and anyone who is introspective will find they look inside with two sides of their personality, the light and dark.
In the 1920s and 1930s, introspective studies were increasingly marginalized.
These cases involve experiments with non-human primates, so we lack introspective reports.
Introspective knowledge is also often held to be more immediate or direct than sensory knowledge.
Priority is given to a subject’s introspective reports as these express the subject’s take on her experience.
Schwitzgebel (2002) has marshalled other sorts of empirical evidence to show that introspective reports are unreliable.
The basic idea is that introspective consideration of paradigmatic phenomenal states suggests that they are intentional.
Some critics charge that acquaintance accounts construe introspective beliefs as too close to their objects to qualify as genuine, substantial knowledge.
This modality has the properties of an S4 modal operator; hence, it is factive, positively introspective but not negatively introspective.
Chalmers (2003) concedes the temporal locality of such phenomenology-containing introspective judgments and consequently their limited use in speech and in making generalizations.
However, many philosophers of mind will resist calling a process that meets these three conditions “introspective” unless it also meets some or all of the following three conditions:
The question would then be whether this is how we generally arrive at true self-ascriptions, for some particular class of mental states, or whether some more archetypically introspective process is also available.
The targets are simply the states self-ascribed as a consequence of the introspective process if the process works correctly, or if the introspective process fails, the states that would have been self-ascribed.
It is surprising, therefore, to learn that on the standard view among scholars, Descartes holds a strong view of privileged access guaranteeing the truth of all introspective judgments about the present contents of our own minds.
The border between introspective and non-introspective knowledge can begin to seem blurry with respect to bodily self-knowledge such as proprioceptive knowledge about the position of one’s limbs or nociceptive knowledge about one’s pains.
Another account of introspection, identified most closely with Shoemaker (1996a,b,c,d), is that the immediacy of introspective belief follows from the fact that occurrent mental states and our introspective beliefs about them are functionally interdefined.
Not all deserve to be called introspective, but an understanding of introspection requires an appreciation of this diversity of approaches—some for the sake of the contrast they provide to introspection proper and some because it’s disputable whether they should be classified as introspective.
Philosophers of mind offer a variety of theories of the nature of introspection; and philosophical claims about consciousness, emotion, free will, personal identity, thought, belief, imagery, perception, and other mental phenomena are often thought to have introspective consequences or to be susceptible to introspective verification.
- given to examining own sensory and perceptual experiences
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Philosophers of mind offer a variety of theories of the nature of introspection and philosophical claims about consciousness emotion free will personal identity thought belief imagery perception and other mental phenomena are often thought to have introspective consequences or to be susceptible to introspective verification