Generative justification complements consequential justification.
The objections discussed above challenge the sufficiency of the externalist’s proposed conditions for justification.
E2* appears capable of providing s with justification for believing P2 even if s has no independent justification for Q2.
One is what can be called independent justification because it appears—intuitively—independent of the original justification for q.
In Twins E2 can give s justification for believing P2 only if s has independent justification for believing Q2 in the first instance.
As we have seen, reliabilists about justification think that justification for a belief consists in a genesis in a reliable cognitive process.
Unless differently specified, by ‘epistemic justification’ or ‘justification’ we will always mean ‘propositional justification’.
Importantly, full publicity comprises “public justification,” which is Rawls’s third stage of the justification of the political conception generally.
Condition (iii) is crucial for distinguishing transmission of justification across (known) entailment from closure of justification across (known) entailment.
In many cases when q receives via transmission from p an additional independent justification, q will also receive a quantitatively strengthening justification.
Some who write about the justification of desert claims seem to think that it is specific desert claims about particular individuals that call for justification.
If justification is a function of evidence, knowledge implies justification, but according to Williamson justification is not part of what knowledge is.
The principle of epistemic closure just requires that when s has justification for believing p and knows that q is deducible from p, s have justification for believing q.
The now-standard semantics for justification logic originates in (Fitting 2005)—the models used are generally called Fitting models in the literature, but will be called possible world justification models here.
Very roughly, one has propositional justification when one has justification for belief in a proposition—i.e., when one possesses good reasons, evidence, or justification to believe a proposition.
evidence | justification, epistemic: coherentist theories of | justification, epistemic: foundationalist theories of | justification, epistemic: internalist vs. externalist conceptions of | knowledge: analysis of | modesty and humility | reliabilist epistemology
When justification is called for, the infinite regress argument for justification–ultimate justification—concludes that no justification chain is ever complete, since what confers justification must itself be justified (by a different proposition).
contextualism, epistemic | ethics: virtue | justification, epistemic: coherentist theories of | justification, epistemic: foundationalist theories of | justification, epistemic: internalist vs. externalist conceptions of | knowledge, value of | reliabilist epistemology | skepticism
contextualism, epistemic | epistemic closure | epistemology: naturalism in | epistemology: social | epistemology: virtue | justification, epistemic: coherentist theories of | justification, epistemic: foundationalist theories of | justification, epistemic: internalist vs. externalist conceptions of | skepticism: and content externalism
Descartes, René: epistemology | epistemic closure | justification, epistemic: coherentist theories of | justification, epistemic: foundationalist theories of | justification, epistemic: internalist vs. externalist conceptions of | perception: the disjunctive theory of | skepticism: ancient | transmission of justification and warrant
- something (such as a fact or circumstance) that shows an action to be reasonable or necessary
Example: he considered misrule a justification for revolution
- a statement in explanation of some action or belief
- the act of defending or explaining or making excuses for by reasoning
Example: the justification of barbarous means by holy ends
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Descartes René epistemology | epistemic closure | justification epistemic coherentist theories of | justification epistemic foundationalist theories of | justification epistemic internalist vs externalist conceptions of | perception the disjunctive theory of | skepticism ancient | transmission of justification and warrant