This is the notion of logical inconsistency.
Not all philosophers accept these explanations of logical validity, however.
What justifies calling nonmonotonic consequence logical?
(For more on logical truths, see the entry on logical truth.
Twentieth century philosophy of science was largely dominated by logical empiricism.
For full treatment, see positivism: Logical positivism and logical empiricism.
are thought to have the same logical form, because “girl” and “boy” are not logical constants.
If the output is logical state one, then the input must have been logical state zero, and vice versa.
The way she reconciles these apparently conflicting positions is by relativizing logical consequence to a choice of logical constants.
The possibility exists, according to him, of extending the set of logical terms without making the definition of logical consequence useless.
Many years after writing his paper on logical consequence, Tarski returned to the problem of the definition of the concept of a logical term, advancing an attempt at a positive solution.
The Logical Awareness principle states that logical axioms are justified ex officio: an agent accepts logical axioms as justified (including the ones concerning justifications).
Logical form can also be thought of as the result of replacing all of the nonlogical concepts in a proposition by logical constants or by general logical symbols known as variables.
It may be tempting to solve this problem by appealing to a distinctively logical modality—requiring, for example, that logical constants have permutation-invariant extensions as a matter of logical necessity.
As we have done with logical truth and for the same reason, here too, we must give priority to the logical form of an argument and then proceed by this means to define the concept of logical consequence for particular arguments.
In his much-discussed 1936 paper ‘On the concept of logical consequence’, Tarski presents two criteria of material adequacy for formal accounts of logical consequence, which jointly capture the ‘common notion’ of logical consequence (or so he claims).
Starting by representing logical operations as abstract maps defined from one set of discrete logical states to another set, Landauer argued that a physical system that was designed to implement the logical operation must have physical states to correspond to the logical states.
logic: free | logic: infinitary | logic: intuitionistic | logic: linear | logic: modal | logic: paraconsistent | logic: relevance | logic: second-order and higher-order | logic: substructural | logic: temporal | logical consequence | logical form | logical truth | model theory | model theory: first-order | paradox: Skolem’s | proof theory: development of
algebra | Gödel, Kurt | Leśniewski, Stanisław | liar paradox | logic: classical | logic: second-order and higher-order | logical consequence | logical constants | logical truth | Lvov-Warsaw School | model theory | reference | Russell, Bertrand | set theory | Tarski, Alfred: truth definitions | truth | type theory | Vienna Circle | Whitehead, Alfred North
Aristotle, General Topics: logic | Bolzano, Bernard | Carnap, Rudolf | Frege, Gottlob: theorem and foundations for arithmetic | logic, normative status of | logic: algebraic propositional | logic: classical | logic: inductive | logic: intuitionistic | logic: non-monotonic | logic: substructural | logical constants | logical form | logical pluralism | logical truth | model theory | proof theory | Russell, Bertrand | schema | semantics: proof-theoretic
- based on known statements or events or conditions
Example: rain was a logical expectation, given the time of year
- capable of or reflecting the capability for correct and valid reasoning
Example: a logical mind
- capable of thinking and expressing yourself in a clear and consistent manner
- marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts
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Aristotle General Topics logic | Bolzano Bernard | Carnap Rudolf | Frege Gottlob theorem and foundations for arithmetic | logic normative status of | logic algebraic propositional | logic classical | logic inductive | logic intuitionistic | logic non-monotonic | logic substructural | logical constants | logical form | logical pluralism | logical truth | model theory | proof theory | Russell Bertrand | schema | semantics proof-theoretic