This brings us to the problem of measurement.
Measurement, the process of associating numbers with physical quantities and phenomena.
On the contrary, our measurement devices always seem to display definite values.
Indeed, in the argument measurement was mentioned only once and in the negative — in NC.
The general question of error in measurement raises the topic of measurement theory.
Finally, while lengths have arbitrary units of measurement, angles have a natural unit of measurement.
For example, estimates of the magnitude of measurement error are typically reported along with measurement results.
Although accounts of measurement varied, the consensus was that measurement is a method of assigning numbers to magnitudes.
Suppose a scientist is trying to determine the accuracy of a measurement device and also the accuracy of a measurement result.
The study of measurement scales and the empirical information they convey is the main concern of mathematical theories of measurement.
These strands reflect different perspectives on the nature of measurement and the conditions that make measurement possible and reliable.
This interdependence of measurement and theory may seem like a threat to the evidential role that measurement is supposed to play in the scientific enterprise.
Sometimes a hybrid measurement is employed, in which, following its interaction with a probe, the original system is subjected to another (typically projective) measurement.
Empirical adequacy requires that, in cases of measurement, the after-measurement value state of the apparatus corresponds to the (definite) measurement result.
In particular, it is that each relative memory state describes a relative observer with a determinate measurement result that explains determinate measurement records on Everett’s view.
While Szilard gave a specific example of a measurement process that was supposed to demonstrate the entropic cost, he did not attempt a general argument that no physical measurement process could do better.
The upshot is that, while not impossible, one should not typically expect to find reliable relative measurement records indicating that there are branches corresponding to alternative macroscopic measurement records.
If measurement is taken to be analogous to symbol-manipulation, then Shannon-Weaver theory could provide a formalization of the syntax of measurement while measurement theory could provide a formalization of its semantics.
According to model-based accounts, measurement involves interaction between an object of interest (the “system under measurement”), an instrument (the “measurement system”) and an environment, which includes the measuring subjects.
If there is a backward-directed influence of the chosen measurement setting (and context) on the pre-measurement ontic state, it is no longer to be expected that the measurement process is simply uncovering an independently existing definite value for some property of the system, rather the measurement process can play a causal role in bringing about such values (the measurement process is retrocausal rather than retrodictive).
measurement
noun act
- the act or process of assigning numbers to phenomena according to a rule
Example: the measurements were carefully done
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If there is a backward-directed influence of the chosen measurement setting and context on the pre-measurement ontic state it is no longer to be expected that the measurement process is simply uncovering an independently existing definite value for some property of the system rather the measurement process can play a causal role in bringing about such values the measurement process is retrocausal rather than retrodictive