In the traditional sense metaphysics is the study of Being.
In §8 of the Discourse on Metaphysics, Leibniz presents his classic picture, writing:
Hume’s own explicit pronouncements about metaphysics are ambivalent.
Heidegger’s attitude toward metaphysics was always characterized by a distinct ambivalence.
We will also consider arguments that metaphysics, however defined, is an impossible enterprise.
In relation to such debates it must be remembered that Kant himself was not critical of metaphysics per se.
One can get a sense of what Horkheimer means when criticizing metaphysics by looking at “Materialism and Metaphysics.”
We need to do more than show that the metaphysics implied by traditional interpretation and the metaphysics that we prefer are on a par.
All main authors who considered metaphysics approached Aristotle’s Metaphysics, to different extents and degrees, from these various perspectives.
If metaphysics now considers a wider range of problems than those studied in Aristotle's Metaphysics, those original problems continue to belong to its subject-matter.
Assuming that Aristotle’s Metaphysics (Met.) is a systematic account of a particular subject, Brito follows the majority of medieval commentators by beginning his inquiry with the question “What is the subject matter of metaphysics?”.
belief | causation: the metaphysics of | color | conditionals | decision-making capacity | desire | ethics: virtue | intrinsic vs. extrinsic properties | laws of nature | Lewis, David | Lewis, David: metaphysics | mental causation | properties | Ryle, Gilbert
abstract objects | mathematics, philosophy of | mathematics, philosophy of: indispensability arguments in the | nominalism: in metaphysics | ontological commitment | Platonism: in metaphysics | Platonism: in the philosophy of mathematics | plural quantification | Quine, Willard Van Orman
abstract objects | fictionalism | mathematics, philosophy of | mathematics, philosophy of: indispensability arguments in the | mathematics, philosophy of: nominalism | nominalism: in metaphysics | nonexistent objects | Platonism: in metaphysics | Platonism: in the philosophy of mathematics | psychologism
Aristotle, General Topics: logic | Aristotle, General Topics: metaphysics | contradiction | dialetheism | essential vs. accidental properties | liar paradox | logic: ancient | logic: paraconsistent | metaphysics | Plato: on knowledge in the Theaetetus | reference | relativism | skepticism | skepticism: ancient
But unlike traditional metaphysics, which is thought of a priori, Stumpf’s view of metaphysics, as he repeatedly imparted since his first lectures on metaphysics in Würzburg, is based on experience insofar as it is continuous with the empirical sciences and proceeds inductively, i.e. according to a bottom-up approach.
Accordingly, this section will focus on the development of Dewey’s conception of “metaphysics”, the main project in Experience and Nature, how a so-called empirical metaphysics intended to reconnect with the ancient idea of philosophy as wisdom, and finally it will sketch some of the criticisms Dewey’s metaphysics received.
As further evidence of Heidegger’s sympathy for metaphysics, one might invoke two complementary texts from the late 1920s and early ’30s: Die Grundberiffe der Metaphysik (The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics), originally a series of lectures delivered in 1929–30, and Kant und das Problem der Metaphysik (1929; Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics).
causation: counterfactual theories of | causation: the metaphysics of | conditionals | conditionals: counterfactual | determinism: causal | dispositions | Hempel, Carl | Hume, David | induction: problem of | laws of nature: ceteris paribus | Lewis, David | Lewis, David: metaphysics | metaphysics | possible worlds | probability, interpretations of | properties | scientific explanation | supervenience
abstract objects | Aristotle | categories | causation: the metaphysics of | consciousness | epiphenomenalism | existence | form vs. matter | identity: of indiscernibles | intentionality | laws of nature | Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm: modal metaphysics | logic: classical | mass expressions: metaphysics of | material constitution | mereology | metaphysics | monism | Moore, George Edward | natural kinds | nominalism: in metaphysics | nonexistent objects | ontological commitment | ordinary objects | perception: the contents of | physicalism | Platonism: in metaphysics | plural quantification | possible objects | properties | propositions | quantifiers and quantification | Quine, Willard Van Orman | reference | relations | Russell, Bertrand | Strawson, Peter Frederick | substance | temporal parts | tropes | truth | truth: correspondence theory of
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abstract objects | Aristotle | categories | causation the metaphysics of | consciousness | epiphenomenalism | existence | form vs matter | identity of indiscernibles | intentionality | laws of nature | Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm modal metaphysics | logic classical | mass expressions metaphysics of | material constitution | mereology | metaphysics | monism | Moore George Edward | natural kinds | nominalism in metaphysics | nonexistent objects | ontological commitment | ordinary objects | perception the contents of | physicalism | Platonism in metaphysics | plural quantification | possible objects | properties | propositions | quantifiers and quantification | Quine Willard Van Orman | reference | relations | Russell Bertrand | Strawson Peter Frederick | substance | temporal parts