How does perceiving speech differ from perceiving ordinary non-linguistic sounds?
The challenges differ in respect of how speech perception is held to differ from non-linguistic audition.
Since Davidson thinks that non-linguistic creatures can’t have the concept of belief, they can’t have other concepts as well.
For one thing, as we saw, the model of non-linguistic art as merely sensuous and non-cognitive in the end proves to be unsustainable.
Genuine hypotheses about the effects of language on thought will always have a duality: there will be a linguistic part and a non-linguistic one.
The non-linguistic part of a Whorfian hypothesis will contrast the psychological effects that habitually using the two languages has on their speakers.
The semantic view of theories, on the other hand, did emphasize an important role for models, but it also urged that theories were non-linguistic entities.
In his last cycle of aesthetics lectures (1832–3) Schleiermacher initially pursued a very simple strategy for dealing with these issues concerning non-linguistic art.
Moreover, just like “bachelor”, “Socrates” appears in (some) dictionaries along with an explanation supplying just this sort of non-linguistic identifying information.
So “non-linguistic” art is really doubly dependent on thought and language: not only for the thoughts that it expresses but also for those that it presupposes in perception.
is typically understood on the mental representation view as asking whether a pre-linguistic or non-linguistic agent can entertain mental representations of a particular kind.
Moreover, since, as we have just seen, for Herder seemingly non-linguistic arts such as painting, sculpture, and music likewise presuppose and express concepts, beliefs, and values, it also applies to them.
A different way to develop a non-mentalist foundational theory of meaning focuses less on relations between subsentential expressions or sentences and bits of non-linguistic reality and more on the regularities which govern our use of language.
In later work he extended this approach to the ascription of thoughts to non-linguistic and prelinguistic creatures, developing a model based on a version of success semantics and integrating what he termed proto-logical inferential capacities (Bermúdez 2003).
Paradigmatic functionalists like Tomlin, Van Valin and MacWhinney could in principle hold that the explanation of syntactic form, for example, will ultimately be in terms of discourse functions and semantics, but still accept that syntactic categories cannot be reduced to non-linguistic ones.
First, even though the psychological abilities and mechanisms that Tomasello posits have been selected for linguistic functions, these abilities and mechanisms have continued to be used (and, plausibly, selected) for non-linguistic purposes, such as face recognition, theory of mind, non-linguistic perception, etc.
Although the two circles seem, in general, to have agreed with the thesis that a subject can be directed towards objects in fundamentally distinct ways, one of which is active, spontaneous, linguistic and conceptual, whereas the other is passive, non-linguistic and non-conceptual, this position nevertheless also attracted objections and criticism.
But since Herder also holds that such seemingly non-linguistic forms of art as painting, sculpture, and music likewise presuppose and express concepts, beliefs, values, and so on that are ultimately grounded in language, he believes that the same general hermeneutic principles for interpreting linguistic works in the face of radical mental difference also make an essential contribution to the interpretation of this sort of art.
Some recent examples of particular interest include whether language influences how we conceptualize spatial frames of reference (in non-linguistic spatial reasoning) (e.g., Li & Gleitman 2002, Levinson et al. 2002, Levinson 2003, Li et al. 2011), spatial relations (in non-linguistic reasoning) (e.g., Choi & Bowerman 1991, Hespos & Spelke 2004), sex (the impact of grammatical gender) (e.g., Boroditsky, Schmidt, & Phillips 2003) and number (e.g., Gordon 2004, Pica et al. 2004, Laurence & Margolis 2007).
Positive arguments for attributing beliefs to (at least) human infants and non-linguistic mammals have tended to focus on the general biological and behavioral similarity between adult human beings, human infants, and non-human mammals; the intuitive naturalness of describing the behavior of infants and non-linguistic mammals in terms of their beliefs and desires; and the difficulty of usefully characterizing their mental lives without relying on the ascription of propositional attitudes (e.g., Routley 1981; Marcus 1995; Allen and Bekoff 1997; Zimmerman 2018).
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Positive arguments for attributing beliefs to at least human infants and non-linguistic mammals have tended to focus on the general biological and behavioral similarity between adult human beings human infants and non-human mammals the intuitive naturalness of describing the behavior of infants and non-linguistic mammals in terms of their beliefs and desires and the difficulty of usefully characterizing their mental lives without relying on the ascription of propositional attitudes eg Routley 1981 Marcus 1995 Allen and Bekoff 1997 Zimmerman 2018