Voluntary or not, membership entails obligation.
But there cannot be conflicts of all-in obligation.
If that's obedience, legal obligation needn't be obligation to obey.
Political obligation is often understood in the specific sense of obligation to obey the laws and decrees of the state.
A content-independent obligation to obey the state is an obligation to obey a state’s directives as such, independently of their content.
It then turns, in Part II, to the conceptual questions raised by political obligation, such as what it means for an obligation to be political.
Rather, the theological understanding of obligation is the authentic one, and nontheological concepts of obligation are unintelligible truncations.
At the core of the associative approach is the idea that political obligation is a form of non-voluntary obligation on a par with familial obligations.
If we assume that if you have an obligation to do something, then you don't have an obligation to avoid doing it, we can derive an outright contradiction.
The capacity to feel pain grounds an obligation to avoid its infliction; the capacity to anticipate and dread as well as feel pain may ground a stronger obligation.
The idea that contract establishes chosen obligation highlights the affinity between contract obligation in law and promissory obligation in morals.
This primary obligation dooms any attempt to develop a theory of political obligation, Wolff argues, except in the highly unlikely case of a direct democracy in which every law has the unanimous approval of the citizenry.
Although the arguments are about a moral obligation to enhance, the authors recognize that other competing priorities (e.g., autonomy of parents, welfare of other siblings, harm to others) could potentially trump this obligation.
Another kind of non-parental obligation that gamete donors might have is to remain open to the possibility of forming relationships with their biological offspring, though this openness does not entail an obligation to in fact form such relationships (Little 1999).
(LO) implies that there are three levels of obligations that Ben fails to fulfill: his primary obligation to refrain from pressing any button, his secondary obligation to press the first button, and his tertiary obligation to press the second button.
For example, our deontological obligation with respect to human life is neither an obligation not to kill nor an obligation not to intend to kill; rather, it is an obligation not to murder, that is, to kill in execution of an intention to kill.
Finally, orthodox contract’s insistence that contract is chosen obligation also underwrites theoretical resistance to moral views, such as Scanlon’s, that seek to explain contractual obligation in terms of the involuntarily imposed obligation not to harm others.
The third thesis Williams mentions as a part of the morality system is the obligation out-obligation in principle, the view that every particular moral obligation needs the backing of a general moral obligation, of which it is to be explained as an instance.
The social nature of obligation, voluntarists might retort, first and foremost concerns the fact that when one is under an obligation, there is someone else who is entitled to hold one accountable for failures to adhere to the content of that obligation (Adams 1999, p. 233; Evans 2013, p 14).
Orthodox contract is, in this respect, distinct from tort: a tort obligation might arise in connection with a choice—as the obligation not to be drunk arises in connection with the choice to operate a car; a contract obligation, by contrast, is itself immediately chosen—at the core of every offer and every acceptance lies, as the Restatement says, an intention to establish an obligation by communicating this intention.
- the social force that binds you to the courses of action demanded by that force
- the state of being obligated to do or pay something
Example: he is under an obligation to finish the job
- a personal relation in which one is indebted for a service or favor
- a written promise to repay a debt
- a legal agreement specifying a payment or action and the penalty for failure to comply
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Orthodox contract is in this respect distinct from tort a tort obligation might arise in connection with a choice—as the obligation not to be drunk arises in connection with the choice to operate a car a contract obligation by contrast is itself immediately chosen—at the core of every offer and every acceptance lies as the Restatement says an intention to establish an obligation by communicating this intention