Nichols distinguishes empirical rationalism from moral rationalism.
When I read it, it makes me want to fling off the constraints of that rationalism and go straight to the wild reality of things.
Rationalism has long been the rival of empiricism, the doctrine that all knowledge comes from, and must be tested by, sense experience.
In his most famous essay, “Rationalism in Politics”, published in 1962, he attacked the intellectual conceit that underpins all these –isms, namely the misplaced faith in “rationalism” that stemmed from the 18th-century enlightenment.
Unlike the Jansenists, who suspected the efficacy of reason, Arnauld and Nicole wholeheartedly embraced Descartes' rationalism.
For Kant, dogmatic rationalism fails to secure the conclusion that moral obligations have unconditional authority over us (Kant G, 4: 441).
The Dutch-Jewish philosopher met with tremendous resistance among many groups in his day, but his work provided one of the bases for 17th-century rationalism.
In sum then, while the notion of continental rationalism can be a useful heuristic, especially for teaching and learning, it ought not to be a strict criterion.
Thus, a signature doctrine of rationalism is the doctrine of innate ideas, according to which the mind has built into it not just the structure of knowledge but even its content.
While the demarcation between rationalism and empiricism may be useful as an interpretive and pedagogical tool, it should be borne in mind that it is a construction in retrospect.
Against rationalism about beauty, the eighteenth-century theory of taste held the judgment of beauty to be immediate; against egoism about virtue, it held the pleasure of beauty to be disinterested.
For Kekes, conservatism adopts a stance of scepticism between extremes of rationalism and fideism (belief based on faith), and steers a middle course of pessimism between claims of perfectibility and corruptibility (1998: 54, 89, 60).
But it was also responding to dialectic within philosophy’s epistemological positions, particularly the tension between British empiricism, rationalism (see entry on rationalism vs. empiricism), and the Kantian synthesis.
Rationalism about beauty is the view that judgments of beauty are judgments of reason, i.e., that we judge things to be beautiful by reasoning it out, where reasoning it out typically involves inferring from principles or applying concepts.
The old metaphysics here was not simply the rationalism of Leibniz and Wolff but the metaphysics of natural science of Kant, Schelling, Hegel and Herbart, which was still indebted to the old rationalism in its faith in pure reason.
animal: cognition | Bayes’ Theorem | behaviorism | childhood, the philosophy of | connectionism | epistemology: Bayesian | innateness: and language | innateness: historical controversies | mind: modularity of | psychology: evolutionary | rationalism vs. empiricism
Insofar as a defense of rationalism involves a defense of the epistemic role of intuitions, it is not surprising that Bealer and Casullo suggest different ways of defending rationalism given that they have different views about the nature of intuitions.
concepts | Descartes, René | Descartes, René: epistemology | Descartes, René: theory of ideas | Hume, David | innateness: and contemporary theories of cognition | innateness: and language | Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm | Locke, John | Plato: middle period metaphysics and epistemology | rationalism vs. empiricism
causation: and manipulability | causation: backward | causation: probabilistic | causation: the metaphysics of | conditionals: counterfactual | determinism: causal | events | facts | Hume, David | implicature | intrinsic vs. extrinsic properties | possible worlds | probability, interpretations of | rationalism vs. empiricism | scientific explanation | time: thermodynamic asymmetry in
aesthetics: German, in the 18th century | Continental Rationalism | German Philosophy: in the 18th century, prior to Kant | intrinsic vs. extrinsic properties | Kant, Immanuel: and Leibniz | Kant, Immanuel: critique of metaphysics | Kant, Immanuel: philosophy of science | Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm | Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm: ethics | Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm: on causation | Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm: on the problem of evil | Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm: philosophy of mind | mathematics: inconsistent | Mendelssohn, Moses | rationalism vs. empiricism
- (philosophy) the doctrine that knowledge is acquired by reason without resort to experience
- the theological doctrine that human reason rather than divine revelation establishes religious truth
- the doctrine that reason is the right basis for regulating conduct
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aesthetics German in the 18th century | Continental Rationalism | German Philosophy in the 18th century prior to Kant | intrinsic vs extrinsic properties | Kant Immanuel and Leibniz | Kant Immanuel critique of metaphysics | Kant Immanuel philosophy of science | Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm | Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm ethics | Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm on causation | Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm on the problem of evil | Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm philosophy of mind | mathematics inconsistent | Mendelssohn Moses | rationalism vs empiricism