He also calls this “probable” reasoning.
Is Fitch’s epistemic reasoning in order?
What philosophical basis can be provided for reasoning by analogy?
Defeasible reasoning just like deductive reasoning, can follow complex patterns.
Analogical reasoning is fundamental to human thought and, arguably, to some nonhuman animals as well.
Ideal rational reasoning, by contrast, is reasoning that cannot be weakened by further reasoning.
He considers mathematical reasoning from the relation of ideas category and causal reasoning from the category of matters of fact.
We find defeasible inferences in everyday reasoning, in expert reasoning (e.g. medical diagnosis), and in scientific reasoning.
Accordingly, the close relations between moral reasoning, the moral facts, and moral theory do not eliminate moral reasoning as a topic of interest.
Mathematical reasoning, when it bears on action, is always used in connection with achieving some purpose and thus in connection with causal reasoning.
Section 4, part 1 of the Enquiry distinguishes (as we have seen) between reasoning concerning relations of ideas and reasoning concerning matters of fact and existence.
Even in cases like legal reasoning, where logicians and logically-minded legal theorists have put much effort into formalizing the reasoning, the utility of the results is controversial.
Even if it is granted that our judgments are often the products of our reasoning, pace Haidt (2001), it remains possible that our reasoning itself is distorted by evolutionary influences.
It is worth emphasizing that the mode of reasoning illustrated by this historical example is still an important mode of reasoning in genetics today, including what is sometimes called molecular genetics.
If the standard picture of reasoning is right, principles of reasoning that are based on such rules are normative principles of reasoning, namely they are principles we ought to reason in accordance with.
Bringing an eclectic set of conceptual tools to the problem of idealized reasoning in realistic settings, and using computers to model and test the theories, research in AI has transformed the study of reasoning—especially of practical, common sense reasoning.
For example, although acknowledging that there may be much more to be said about what is distinctive about legal reasoning, Hurley 1990 is largely content to explore the consequences for legal reasoning which ensue from the coherentist account of general practical reasoning which she espouses.
Examining the reasoning practices of historical and contemporary scientists, Nersessian (2008) has argued that new scientific concepts are constructed as solutions to specific problems by systematic reasoning, and that of analogy, visual representation and thought-experimentation are among the important reasoning practices employed.
Thus, there are three main positions as to whether reasoning is impaired in people with delusions: (1) it is not impaired at all or the apparent impairment is due to a performance error rather than to a limitation of reasoning competence; (2) it is impaired due to a hypothesis evaluation deficit, and possibly reasoning biases; (3) it is impaired due to reasoning biases only.
There are thus three things (at least, there may be others) which legal theorists could mean by legal reasoning: (a) reasoning to establish the existing content of the law on a given issue, (b) reasoning from the existing content of the law to the decision which a court should reach in a case involving that issue which comes before it, and (c) reasoning about the decision which a court should reach in a case, all things considered.
- endowed with the capacity to reason
- thinking that is coherent and logical
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There are thus three things at least there may be others which legal theorists could mean by legal reasoning a reasoning to establish the existing content of the law on a given issue b reasoning from the existing content of the law to the decision which a court should reach in a case involving that issue which comes before it and c reasoning about the decision which a court should reach in a case all things considered