The most common type of renal disorder, pyelonephritis may be chronic or acute.
Alongside his clinical duties at Salford Royal Hospital, where he had worked since 1992, he was the inaugural president of the British Renal Society, president of the Renal Association and the first National Clinical Director of Kidney Care at the Department of Health.
The contrast material yields a renal angiogram, showing the renal vascular tree.
Here only the part played by renal transplantation in the total care of renal disease is considered.
Most individuals who survive completely recover from acute renal failure, but residual renal damage persists in some persons.
The patient in advanced renal failure is vulnerable to infection and other complications, such as vomiting or diarrhea, which need special care.
Uremia ought to represent a purely chemical statement, but it is sometimes used to denote a clinical picture, that of severe renal insufficiency.
The most common immediate cause of hypertension-related death is heart disease, but death from stroke or renal (kidney) failure is also frequent.
Kidney stone, also called renal calculus, plural renal calculi, concretion of minerals and organic matter that forms in the kidneys.
Lymphatic capillaries form a network just inside the renal capsule and another, deeper network between and around the renal blood vessels.
Important quantitative tests of renal function include those of glomerular filtration rate, renal clearance, and renal blood flow.
The course of acute renal failure can usefully be divided into three phases: an onset phase, a phase of established acute renal failure, and a recovery phase.
Hypertension can also accelerate the progress of renal damage by its impact on the renal blood vessels themselves, setting up a cycle that can be hard to break.
Renal biopsy has been valuable in clarifying several renal disorders, notably those affecting the glomeruli, and in revealing their prognosis and natural course.
Kidney stones, if large, can obstruct the outflow of urine, allow infections to persist, and create spasms in the renal tubules, a condition known as renal colic.
In the discussion of chronic renal failure, attention was drawn to the cycle in which high blood pressure secondary to renal disease can produce further damage to the kidneys.
The innermost tissue, called the renal medulla, forms comparatively dark cones, called renal pyramids, with bases outward and apexes projecting, either singly or in groups, into the renal sinus.
In the renal sinus the lobar veins unite to form veins corresponding to the main divisions of the renal arteries, and they normally fuse to constitute a single renal vein in or near the renal hilus.
Renal acidosis may occur as part of general renal failure or as a specific disease of the renal tubules, one of whose functions is to convert the slightly alkaline glomerular filtrate into the (usually) acidic urine.
The renal sinus includes the renal pelvis, a funnel-shaped expansion of the upper end of the ureter, and, reaching into the kidney substances from the wide end of the funnel, two or three extensions of the cavity called the major calyxes.
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