Highly bred light horses are notoriously poor reproducers.
The notion of reproducers has also been applied to speciation and cladogenesis (A.
The relation between reproducers, and replicators and interactors, varies according to author.
Godfrey-Smith classifies genes as scaffolded reproducers since they rely on cellular machinery for their reproduction (p. 130).
Both simple and scaffolded reproducers can be parts of what Godfrey-Smith calls collective reproducers, which are
As physiological individuals, hearts are alive but they do not reproduce or relate to reproducers in the manner that Darwinian individuals do.
He thinks that reproducers need not contribute actual material to their progeny (where they template for sequences, as in the case of viruses).
Holobionts can also be reproducers, where the host usually reproduces vertically and the microbiota reproduce either vertically, horizontally, or both.
In such a Darwinian population, the members are Darwinian individuals, which are both bearers and active reproducers of heritable traits (see Godfrey-Smith 2013: 19–20).
Thus, there are a variety of philosophical approaches to analyzing evolutionary transition on offer, whether in terms of reproducers, multilevel selection, or Darwinian populations.
Those adopting the reproducer concept argue that thinking in broader terms of reproducers avoids the presupposition of evolved coding mechanisms implicit to the concept of replicators.
But we believe that reproducers also have strong reasons to seek to prevent even an innate tendency to negative affect, or the severe impairment in social skills associated with Asperger's syndrome. (2008: 281)
Others, particularly Jablonka and Lamb (2005, 2007), think that reproducers are distinct from replication, and that some epigenetic inheritance systems are reproducers without being replicators.
Both groups and multicellular organisms exemplify collective reproduction, and Godfrey-Smith’s discussion of the continuous dimensional space that characterizes collective reproducers, and Darwinian individuals more generally, has been influential, and is summarily depicted in Figure 4 below.
An aspect of reproducers sensu lato that has fascinated some is that it does not imply a particular level of reproduction or progeneration, and indeed Szathmáry and Maynard Smith consider that the major transitions of evolution each involve an evolved mode of progeneration that is more inclusive or novel than what it evolved from (Maynard Smith & Szathmáry 1995; Szathmáry & Maynard Smith 1997).
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An aspect of reproducers sensu lato that has fascinated some is that it does not imply a particular level of reproduction or progeneration and indeed Szathmáry and Maynard Smith consider that the major transitions of evolution each involve an evolved mode of progeneration that is more inclusive or novel than what it evolved from Maynard Smith Szathmáry 1995 Szathmáry Maynard Smith 1997