We can call this Hume’s ninth rule.
This rule was approved by Pope Honorius III.
Consider a rule that rule-consequentialism purports to favor — e.g., “don’t steal”.
The phrase “the Rule of Law” has to be distinguished from the phrase “a rule of law”.
Since the rule defines a physical computation in general, the rule need not be recursive.
So means-ends analysis would recommend the natural projection rule over the gruesome rule.
How do we determine when we ought to follow the rule and when we ought not to follow the rule?
Think about what counts as a disaster when the “prevent disaster” rule is in competition with a rule against lying.
Mere conventional stipulation that we will henceforth obey a inference rule does not ensure that the rule carries truths into truths.
Rule by a majority in the interest of all is “polity”; rule by a majority in its own interest—i.e., mob rule—is “democracy.”
If rule-consequentialism ends up requiring the very same acts that act-consequentialism requires, then rule-consequentialism is indeed in terrible trouble.
Thus, we can stipulate the introduction rule for “tonk”, but must then content ourselves with the strongest elimination rule for which such a procedure is available:
But if we insist—quite plausibly—that a semantic rule must be computable (or perhaps easily computable) the rule-to-rule principle is stronger than that.
…two principal ones are the largest-remainder rule and the highest-average rule (the latter referred to as the d’Hondt rule, named after Belgian Victor d’Hondt).
For example, the requirement that a rule be shown to be reliable without any rule-circularity might appear unreasonable when the rule is of a very fundamental nature.
What we have been calling partial rule-consequentialism is nothing but the combination of the act-consequentialist criterion of moral wrongness with the rule-consequentialist decision procedure.
Secondly, an aggregation rule is defined for a fixed set of individuals N and a fixed decision problem, so that majority rule in a group of two individuals is a different mathematical object from majority rule in a group of three.
Although a rule prohibiting stealing may have better consequences than no rule at all, would not the best consequences follow from a rule that permitted stealing only in those special cases in which it is clear that stealing will have better consequences than not stealing?
As a form of government, democracy contrasts with monarchy (rule by a king, queen, or emperor), oligarchy (rule by a few persons), aristocracy (rule by a privileged class), and despotism (absolute rule by a single person), the modern term for which is dictatorship.
In it Lyons argues that rule utilitarianism collapses to act utilitarianism, because for any given rule, in the exceptional case where breaking the rule produces more utility, the rule can always be sophisticated by the addition of a sub-rule that handles cases like the exception.
- exercise authority over; as of nations
- a principle or condition that customarily governs behavior
Example: it was his rule to take a walk before breakfast
- decide with authority
- something regarded as a normative example
- be larger in number, quantity, power, status or importance
- prescribed guide for conduct or action
- decide on and make a declaration about
- (linguistics) a rule describing (or prescribing) a linguistic practice
- have an affinity with; of signs of the zodiac
- a basic generalization that is accepted as true and that can be used as a basis for reasoning or conduct
- the duration of a monarch's or government's power
Example: during the rule of Elizabeth
- mark or draw with a ruler
Example: rule the margins
- keep in check
Example: rule one's temper
- dominance or power through legal authority
- directions that define the way a game or sport is to be conducted
Example: he knew the rules of chess
- any one of a systematic body of regulations defining the way of life of members of a religious order
Example: the rule of St. Dominic
- a rule or law concerning a natural phenomenon or the function of a complex system
- (mathematics) a standard procedure for solving a class of mathematical problems
Example: he determined the upper bound with Descartes' rule of signs
- measuring stick consisting of a strip of wood or metal or plastic with a straight edge that is used for drawing straight lines and measuring lengths
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