Moreover, Similarity 2 faces three further problems.
B, Similarity between the three different manual traces of z-lines.
In neither case has a universally adopted method yet been devised to measure similarity in a reliable and precise way; perhaps none can be, simply since there are so many different aspects of physical and linguistic or semantic similarity.
This raises the question of how to analyse similarity.
Introductions to our topic often emphasise a connection to similarity.
Both SDA and Import-Export are valid in a strict analyses and invalid on standard similarity analyses.
As previously, Johansson (2000) posits determinables as providing a metaphysical basis for perceived similarity among determinates.
We normalized these values by the similarity of the whole tree , to give a similarity ratio for a given effector and taxon.
Lewis (1973b) remain the most popular similarity analyses, there are substantial logical issues which separate similarity analyses.
Morreau (2010) has recently argued on formal grounds that similarity is poorly suited to the task assigned to it by the similarity analysis.
He still held that the particular measure of similarity in use on an occasion is context-sensitive, so there is no one true measure of similarity.
To explain how a given counterfactual like (40) expresses a true proposition, a similarity analysis must specify which particular conception of similarity informs it.
Recall the major difference between this proposal and the basic strict analysis: the similarity analysis uses a graded notion of similarity instead of an absolute notion of accessibility.
Similarity 3, by invoking an active role for the purposes and actions of scientists in constituting scientific representation, marks a significant change in emphasis for similarity-based accounts.
However, appeal to similarity in the context of representation leaves open whether similarity is offered as an answer to the ER-Problem, the Problem of Style, or whether it is meant to set Standards of Accuracy.
The concern has two components: why would humans find it useful, and why would human psychology ground counterfactuals in this concept of similarity rather than our ready-at-hand intuitive concept of overall similarity?
Because functional similarity is the appropriate relation for analogy, it is not necessary for analogues to have the same function as a consequence of common ancestry—similarity despite different origins suffices (Ghiselin 2005).
Similarity theorists are committed to the claim that whenever a scientific model represents its target system, this is established in virtue of a model user specifying a relevant similarity, and if the similarity holds, then the representational relationship is accurate.
However we may need more flexibility than this to allow both for contexts where psychological similarity matters a lot but bodily similarity matters a little and for contexts where bodily similarity matters a lot and psychological similarity matters a little.
That this common predication is ‘rightly’ made derives from the fact, according to Suárez, that there is an objective similarity obtaining between Peter and Paula—this similarity is not imposed by the mind, but is rather reflected in the mental apprehension ascribing a common predicate to them.
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